This report focuses on the experiences and perceptions of disadvantaged families (in particular, low-income families with and without a migration background) in the field of early childhood education and care. It presents case studies based on focus groups with parents and interviews with professionals working in the ECEC sector in seven cities in Europe. It distinguishes between (un)equal opportunities, (un)equal treatment and (un)equal outcomes in analysing different sources of inequalities and possibilities to address them. Unequal opportunities are defined as inequalities in exogenous conditions (e.g. family income) that affect the accessibility of ECEC services. Unequal treatment refers to endogenous barriers within the services, either at systems or at local implementation level. Strategies to combat inequalities can promote either more equal opportunities or more equal treatment. In some cases, ‘equal outcomes strategies’ reach beyond this distinction and indeed involve priority treatment of disadvantaged groups.